References for Kupe
A) Maori Wikipedia page:
B) The treaty of Waitangi
The text of the Treaty includes a preamble and three articles. It is bilingual, with the Māori text inaccurately translated from the English.
• Article one of the Māori text grants governance rights to the Crown while the English text cedes “all rights and powers of sovereignty” to the Crown.
• Article two of the Māori text establishes that Māori will retain full chieftainship over their lands, villages and all their treasures while the English text establishes the continued ownership of the Māori over their lands and establishes the exclusive right of pre-emption of the Crown.
• Article three gives Māori people full rights and protections as British subjects.
The Māori text and the English text differ in meaning significantly, particularly in relation to the meaning of having and ceding sovereignty. These discrepancies led to disagreements in the decades following the signing, eventually contributing to the New Zealand Wars of 1845 to 1872.
C) Maori Protest Movement
D) The New Zealand Wars
Oral traditions of his story:
In the Northland traditions, Kupe is a discoverer and contemporary with, but older than, Nukutawhiti, the ancestor of the Ngā Puhi people. Kupe arrives, lives at Hokianga, and returns to Wawauatea, his homeland, leaving certain signs and marks of his visit (Simmons 1976:34).
Early accounts from the Ngāti Kahungunu area consistently place Kupe on board the Tākitimu canoe or name as his companions people who are strongly associated with the Tākitimu. No other canoes are mentioned in connection with him. They also contain no references to the octopus of Muturangi, nor of the chase from Hawaiki (Simmons 1976:20).
Paratutae Rock, with the indentations said to have been left in the cliff-face by Kupe’s paddle
Tainui traditions about Kupe can be summarised as: Kupe stole Hoturapa’s wife or wives; came to New Zealand and cut up the land; raised rough seas; and went away again.
Whanganui-Taranaki traditions can be summarised as: Kupe came looking for his wife who had been abducted by (H)oturapa. His canoe was named Mataho(u)rua; Kupe was associated with Turi as his contemporary. Kupe cut up the land, and he was a brother of Ngake. Kupe encountered rough seas on his journey. The octopus story is known, but the creature is not named. Except in later versions which are somewhat suspect as to their authenticity, the accounts do not include the episode in which Kupe chases the octopus from Hawaiki (Simmons 1976:27).
Kupe Statue at the Centennial Exhibition (1939–1940)
An 1893 account by Te Whetu of Ngāti Raukawa, who was familiar with Rangitāne traditions, tells of Kupe with his daughters and two birds, Rupe (pigeon) and Kawauatoru (cormorant or shag), exploring the west coast of the North Island. Kupe sends the cormorant to rest the current in the Manukau harbour, which the bird reports as weak, and in Cook Strait, which the bird reports as too strong. The pigeon is sent to explore the interior of the island, and encounters a fantail and a crow (kōkako). Kupe stays at Wellington harbour and names two islands Matiu and Makoro after his daughters. On his return journey, Kupe meets Turi at an island and tells him of this island. At Hawaiki. Kupe recounts his adventures (Simmons 1976:26–27).
The few references to Kupe in South Island sources indicate that the traditions are substantially the same as those of Ngāti Kahungunu, with whom Ngāi Tahu, the main tribe of the South Island, had strong genealogical and trading links (Simmons 1976:34).
Music and video credits:
“Jacks Garage” by Midnight North
“Fallen Soldier” by Biz Baz Studio
Clips from the Disney Movie “Moana” 2016 under fair use.